Analysis of Drivers' Behavior using Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire Based on Roadside Interview in Iran

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran

2 M.Sc. Grad., Department of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran


Drivers' behavior is one of the most important factors in traffic safety. Understanding of this issue and its effective factors can be helpful to reduce the influences of human factors on traffic accidents. The objective of this study is to apply Manchester driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ) to a group of drivers who have overtaken on two-lane rural roads and to analyze their behavior. Also, the relationship between DBQ subscales and overtaking type is investigated.Data collection was performed using field method (observations next to the roads). In order to analyze the data, factor analysis, analysis of variance, and logistic regression were used. Factor analysis led to producing a 4-factor structure including errors, lapses, ordinary violations, and aggressive violations. The results showed that increasing in age and driving experiences gave rise to a decrease in violations scores. Moreover, the results demonstrated a relationship between demographic variables, the score of violations, and type of overtaking. In addition, older drivers had low tendency to commit violations. The purpose of the trip was one of the effective factors for drivers' behavior and types of drivers' overtaking maneuver. Drivers who were on business trips committed more violations and errors than others. Among DBQ factors only the violation factor was effective for predicting the type of overtaking.


- Ayati, A. and Ghotbiravandi, A. (2011) "Study of driver behavior and traffic safety",  Second Conference on road accidents, zanjan azad university, (in Farsi).

- Bahadori Monfared, A., Soori, H., Mehrabi, Y., Delpisheh, A., Esmaili, A., Salehi, M., and Bakhtiyari, M. (2013) "Trends of fatal road traffic injuries in Iran (2004-2011)",  PLoS One, vol. 8, No. 5, e65198. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065198

- Bella, F. (2011) "How traffic conditions affect driver behavior in passing maneuver", Adv Transp Stud, pp. 113-126.

- Bener, A., Özkan, T. and Lajunen, T. (2008) "The driver behaviour questionnaire in Arab Gulf countries: Qatar and United Arab Emirates", Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 1411-1417. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2008.03.003

- Bener, A., Verjee, M., Dafeeah, E. E., Yousafzai, M. T., Mari, S., Hassib, A. and Özkan, T. (2013) "A cross “Ethnical” comparison of the driver behaviour questionnaire (dbq) in an economically fast developing country", Global Journal Of Health Science, Vol. 5(4), pp. 165.

- Chapman, P., Roberts, K. and Underwood, G. (2001) "A study of the accidents and behaviours of company car drivers", Paper presented at the Behavioural Research in Road Safety: Proceedings of The 10th Seminar on Behavioural Research in Road Safety, 3-5 April 2000.

- Cordazzo, S. T., Scialfa, C. T., Bubric, K. and Ross, R. J. (2014) "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire: A North American analysis", Journal of Safety Research.

- De Winter, J. (2013) "Predicting self-reported violations among novice license drivers using pre-license simulator measures", Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 52, pp. 71-79.

- De Winter, J. and Dodou, D. (2010) "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire as a predictor of accidents: A meta-analysis", Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 41, No. 6, pp. 463-470.

- Eugenia Gras, M., Sullman, M. J., Cunill, M., Planes, M., Aymerich, M. and Font-Mayolas, S. (2006) "Spanish drivers and their aberrant driving behaviours",  Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 129-137.

- Freeman, J., Wishart, D., Rowland, B., Barraclough, P., Davey, J. and Darvell, M. (2014) "Using the driver behaviour questionnaire to predict crashes and demerit point loss: does it get better with larger sample sizes?", In Proceedings of the Occupational Safety in Transport Conference. Gold Coast, QLD.

- Ghotbiravandi, A., Ayati, A. and Mohamadzadeh, A. (2012) "Effect of gender on accident and delinquency frequencies by aberrant driving behaviors and personality type of drivers", The 12th  International Conference on Traffic and Transportation Engineering, (in Farsi).

- Iversen, H. H. and Rundmo, T. (2012) "Changes in Norwegian drivers’ attitudes towards traffic safety and driver behaviour from 2000 to 2008", Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vpl. 15(2), pp. 95-100. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2011.12.006

- Kontogiannis, T., Kossiavelou, Z. and Marmaras, N. (2002) "Self-reports of aberrant behaviour on the roads: errors and violations in a sample of Greek drivers",  Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol.  34, No. 3, pp. 381-399.

- Lajunen, T., Parker, D. and Summala, H. (2004) "The Manchester Driver Behaviour Questionnaire: a cross-cultural study", Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol 36, No. 2,  pp. 231-238. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(02)00152-5

- Lajunen, T. and Summala, H. (2003) "Can we trust self-reports of driving? Effects of impression management on driver behaviour questionnaire responses", Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vpl. 6(2), pp. 97-107.

- Lawton, R., Parker, D., Manstead, A. S. and Stradling, S. G. (1997) "The role of affect in predicting social behaviors: the case of road traffic violations", Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 14, pp. 1258-1276.

- Li, J., van Zuylen, H. and van der Horst, E. (2014) "The Driver Behaviour Questionnaire: An investigation study applied to Chinese drivers", Computer-based Modelling and Optimization in Transportation, pp. 433-447: Springer.

- Lucidi, F., Mallia, L., Lazarus, L. and Violani, C. (2014) "Personality and attitudes as predictors of risky driving among older drivers", Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 72, pp. 318-324.

- Malekpoor, F., Mohamadian, Y. and Jamshidi, M. (2012) "The relationship between personality, attitude to safety and risk behaviors in employees motorcycles in Tehran",  Journal of Health and Safety at Work, Vol.4, (in Farsi).

- Mamdoohi, A., Hezave, A. M., and Zavare, M. F. (2014) "Aberrant driving behavior of iranian drivers: an internet-based survey", Modares Civil Engineering Journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 109-119.

- Mesken, J., Lajunen, T. and Summala, H. (2002) "Interpersonal violations, speeding violations and their relation to accident involvement in Finland", Ergonomics, Vol. 45, N0. 7, pp. 469-483.

- Mohaymany, A. S., Kashani, A. T. and Ranjbari, A. (2010) "Identifying driver characteristics influencing overtaking crashes", Traffic injury prevention, Vol. Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 411-416.

- Nordfjærn, T., Hezaveh, A. M. and Mamdoohi, A. R. (2014) "An analysis of reported driver behaviour in samples of domestic and expatriate Iranians", Journal of Risk Research (ahead-of-print), pp. 1-15.

- World Heaslth Organization (2013) "WHO global status report on road safety 2013", supporting a decade of action: World Health Organization.

- Özkan, T., Lajunen, T., Chliaoutakis, J. E., Parker, D. and Summala, H. (2006) "Cross-cultural differences in driving behaviours: A comparison of six countries", Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 9, No. 3, pp. 227-242.

- Özkan, T., Lajunen, T. and Summala, H. (2006) "Driver Behaviour Questionnaire: A follow-up study", Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 386-395. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2005.10.012

- Parker, D., Reason, J. T., Manstead, A. S. and Stradling, S. G. (1995) "Driving errors, driving violations and accident involvement",  Ergonomics, Vol. 38, No. 5, pp. 1036-1048.

- Reason, J., Manstead, A., Stradling, S., Baxter, J. and Campbell, K. (1990) "Errors and violations on the roads: a real distinction?", Ergonomics, Vol. 33, No.10-11, pp. 1315-1332. doi: 10.1080/00140139008925335

- Şimşekoğlu, Ö., Nordfjærn, T., Zavareh, M. F., Hezaveh, A. M. and Mamdoohi, A. R., and Rundmo, T. (2013) "Risk perceptions, fatalism and driver behaviors in Turkey and Iran", Safety Science, Vol. 59, pp. 187-192.

- Sucha, M., Sramkova, L. and Risser, R. (2014) "The Manchester driver behaviour questionnaire: self-reports of aberrant behaviour among Czech drivers", European Transport Research Review, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 493-502.

- Sullman, M. J., Meadows, M. L. and Pajo, K. B. (2002) "Aberrant driving behaviours amongst New Zealand truck drivers", Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 5(3), pp. 217-232.

- Tavakoli, a. (2011) "Accident risk assessment based on the likelihood of accidents caused by overtaking on two-lane rural roads", Thesis for the Ph.D., Iran University of Science and Technology.

- Varmazyar, S., Mortazavi, S., Arghami, S., and Hajizadeh, E. (2014) "Factor analysis of driver behavior questionnaire (DBQ) in public transportation Bus Company: Investigation of the relationship between DBQ factors and crashes", Scientific Journal of  Review, Vol. 3, No.4, pp. 155-165.

- Westerman, S. and Haigney, D. (2000) "Individual differences in driver stress, error and violation",  Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 29, No.5, pp.981-998.

- Xie, C.-q. and Parker, D. (2002) "A social psychological approach to driving violations in two Chinese cities", Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 293-308.