Evaluating the Performance of Hot Mix Asphalt with Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement and Heavy Vacuum Slops as Rejuvenator


1 M.Sc., Department of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 Assistant Professor, Transportation Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.

3 M.Sc. Department of Civil Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Tehran, Iran.


Due to the high price of crude oil, and consequently asphalt binder, the application of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in pavement technology is widely considered. The present paper is the result of a laboratory research which was carried out to investigate the effects of adding a rejuvenating agent to Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) with RAP. To this end, test samples comprised of Aged Asphalt Binder (AAB) that were extracted from RAP, together with a rejuvenating agent were added in different ratios. The study made use of a variety of tests to determine the different percentage ratios of rejuvenator in terms of penetration, softening point and viscosity of the binder. The Marshall Method was then applied to investigate the impact of using a different recycling agent content on the performance of the prepared mixtures. Also, the Universal Testing Machine apparatus was used to determine the resilient modulus and dynamic creep of reclaimed asphalt. The results show that after adding 10% of Heavy Vacuum Slops (HVS) from the Tehran refinery as the rejuvenating agent to reclaim the aged asphalt, there is an improvement in the applicability of reclaimed asphalt cement. In addition, the test results suggest that adding 10% of the rejuvenator leads to RAP mixtures which meet the criteria of a virgin HMA.


- ASTM D 7369-09 (2010) “Standard test method for determining the resilient modulus of bituminous mixtures by indirect tension test”, American Society for Testing and Materials, Vol. 04.03.

- Brennan, M.J. and O’Flaherty, C. A. (2002) “Chapter 5: Materials used in road pavements”, In: O’Flaherty, C. A. (2002) Highways (The location, design, construction and maintenance of road pavements), 4thEd., Butterworth- Heinemann, Oxford, UK.

- Carvalho , R. L. (2010) “Performance of recycled hotmix asphalt overlays in rehabilitation of flexible pavements”, Transportation Research Record, No. 2155, pp. 55-62

- Tam, W.O. (2006) “Chapter 7: Highway materials”, in: FWA, T. F. (2006) The Handbook of Highway Engineering, 1st Ed. Taylor and Francis Group (CRC Press), USA.

- Li, X. (2008) “Effect of reclaimed asphalt pavement (proportion and type) and binder grade on asphalt mixtures.
Transportation Research Record, No. 2051, pp. 90-97.

- Lin, J., Guo, P., Xie, J., Wu, S. and Chen, M. (2012) “Effect of rejuvenator sealer materials on the properties of aged asphalt binder”, Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, on-line @ http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/1 0.1061/%28ASCE%29MT.1943-5533.0000702

- McDaniel, R. (2002) “Use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) under superpave specifications”, Final Report of Federal Highway Administration Report No FHWA/IN/JTRP-2002/6, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

- O’Sullivan, K. A. (2011) “Rejuvenation of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) in hot mix asphalt recycling with high RAP content”, Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for MSc Degree in Civil Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Massachusetts, USA.

- Shen, J., Amirkhanian, S. and Tang, B. (2007) “Effects of rejuvenator on performance-based properties of rejuvenated asphalt binder and mixtures”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 21, Issue 5, pp. 958–964

- Silva, H. M. R. D., Oliveira, J. R.M. and Jesus C. M. G. (2012) “Are totally recycled hot mix asphalts a sustainable alternative for road paving?”, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 60, pp. 38-48

- Solaimanian, M. and Tahmoressi, M. (1996) “Variability analysis of hot-mix asphalt concrete containing high percentage of reclaimed asphalt pavement”, Transportation Research Record, No. 1543, pp. 89-96

- Witczak, W. (2005) “Simple performance tests: Summary of recommended methods and database”, National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 547, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., USA

- Zhang, Y., Van de Ven, M., Molenaar, A. and Wu, S. (2012) “Increasing the service life of porous asphalt with rejuvenators”. In: Proceeding of Second International Conference on Sustainable Construction Materials, Wuhan, China. pp. 318-330