Evaluation of Long Term Ageing of Asphalt Mixtures Containing EAF and BOF Steel Slags

Document Type: Research Paper


1 Department of Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

2 Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University

3 Quchan University of Advanced Technology, Department of Engineering


This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of long term ageing on toughness and resilient modulus of asphalt concrete mixtures containing Electric Arc and Basic Oxygen Furnace steel slags. After initial evaluation of the properties of steel slags using X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electric Microscope, eleven sets of laboratory mixtures were prepared. Each set was treated replacing various portions of limestone coarse aggregates of the mixture (≥ 2.36 mm) with steel slags. The main laboratory program consisted of the determination of resilient modulus at three testing temperatures of 5, 20 and 40˚C (ASTM D4123) and indirect tensile strength of the samples at 20˚C. In order to evaluate the long term performance of mixtures containing slags, the specimens were subjected to ageing according to AASHTO PP2 standard method. Results showed that the peak tensile strength, area up to peak tensile strength and total dissipated energy density of the specimens containing Electric arc furnace slag were greater than the control mixtures. Fracture energy was almost the same for both mixes containing basic oxygen furnace slag and limestone. Results also indicated that the resilient modulus of mixtures increased along with an increase in slag contents in asphalt mixtures. The ratio of aged to unaged resilient modulus of the specimens decreased upon increasing slag contents. It was concluded that mixtures containing electric arc furnace slag exhibited less susceptibility to ageing compared with mixtures containing basic oxygen furnace slag and limestone. At 5oC, the highest ratio belonged to control mixtures, which might indicate that at lower temperatures, the susceptibility to ageing of the control mixtures were more pronounced


-Airey, G. D., Collop A. C. and Thom, N. H.
(2004) “Mechanical performance of asphalt
mixtures incorporating slag and glass secondary
aggregates” Proceedings of the 8th Conference
on Asphalt Pavements for Southern
Africa (CAPSA’04) Sun City, South Africa,
pp.12 – 16.
- Anagnos, J. N. Kennedy T.W. (1972) “Practical
method of conducting the indirect tensile
test” Center of Highway Research, University
of Texas at Austin, Research Report 98-10,
Austin, Texas.
-Asi, I. M., Qasrawi, H. Y. and Shalabi, F. I.
(2007) “Use of steel slag aggregate in asphalt
concretemixes”, Civil Eng.; 34 (8), pp.902–
-Aksoy, A., Samlioglu, K., Tayfur, S. and
Ozen, H. (2005) “Effect of various additives
on Moisture damage sensitivity of asphalt
mixtures”, Construction and Building Materials
19, pp 11-18.
-Bell, C.A. “Summary Report on Ageing of
Asphalt Aggregate Systems”, Project A-003A
(Performance Related Testing and Measurement
of Asphalt-Aggregate Interactions and
Mixtures), Strategic Highway Research Program,
National Research Centre, Washington,
USA, 1989.
-Bell, C. A. and Sosnovske, D. (1994) “Ageing:
binder validation”, Strategic Highway
Research Program, National Research Centre,
Washington, USA.
-Birgisson, B., Montepara, A., Romeo, E.,
Roque, R., Roncella, R. and Tebaldi, G. (2007)
“Determination of fundamental tensile failure
limits of mixtures” J AssoccAsphalt Paving
-EsmaeiliKalalagh, A, Marandi, S. M. and
Safapour, P. (2005)“Technical effects of air
Seyed Ali Ziaee, Amir Kavussi, Morteza Jalili Qazizadeh, Abolfazl Mohammadzadeh Moghadam
International Journal of Transpotation Engineering, 264
Vol.2, No.3, Winter 2014
cooled blast furnace slag on asphalt mixtures”
Transportation Research Center.
-Hamzah, M.O., and Teoh C. Yi. (2008) “Effects
of Temperature on Resilient Modulus of
Dense Asphalt Mixtures Incorporating Steel
Slag Subjected to Short Term Oven Ageing”,
World Academy of Science, Engineering and
Technology, 22.
-Huang, Y. H. (2004) “Pavement analysis and
design”, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
-Kavussi, A. and Modarres, A. (2010) “Laboratory
fatigue models for recycled mixes with
bitumen emulsion and cement”, Construction
and Building Materials 24; pp.1920–1927.
-Lee, H. J. (1996)“Uniaxial constitutive modeling
of asphalt concrete using viscoelasticity
and continuum damage theory” Ph.D. dissertation.
Raleigh: North Carolina State University.
-Li, Q., Jong, Lee H. and Kim, T. W. (2012) ”A
simple fatigue performance model of asphalt
mixtures based on fracture energy”, Construction
and Building Materials, Volume 27, Issue
1, Pages 605-611.
-Liz, Hunt P.E and Glenn, E. (2000) “Steel
slag in hot mix asphalt concrete” State Research
Project #511- Oregon Department of
Transportation, Salem, Oregon.
-Moreno, F. and Rubio, M.C. (2013) “Effect
of aggregate nature on the fatigue-cracking
behavior of asphalt mixes” Materials and Design
47; pp.61–67.
-Pasetto, M. and Baldo, N. (2010) “Experimental
evaluation of high performance base
course and road base asphalt concrete with
electric arc furnace steel slags” Journal of
Hazardous Materials 181 938–948.
-Pasetto, M. and Baldo, N. (2011) “Mix design
and performance analysis of asphalt concretes
with electric arc furnace slag” Construction
and Building Materials; 25: pp.3458–3468.
-Petersen, J. C. (2002) “Chemistry of asphaltaggregate
interaction” Laramie, Wyoming:
Moisture damage symposium.
-Roque, R., Birgisson B., Sangpetngam, B. and
Zhang, Z.W. (2002) “Hot mix asphalt fracture
mechanics: a fundamental crack growth law
for asphalt mixtures” J. Assoc Asphalt Paving
-Shaopeng, W., Yongjie, X. and Qunshan, Y.
(2007) “Utilization of steel slag as aggregates
for stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixtures”,
Building and Environment, 42: pp.2580–
-Sofilić, T., Rastovčan-Mioč, A.,Ćosić, M.,
Merle, V.,Mioč, B. and Sofilić, U. (2010)
“EAF steel slag application possibilities in
Croatian asphalt mixture production” Chemical
Engineering Transactions, VOL 19.
-Waligora, J., Bulteel. D., Degrugilliers. P. and
Damidot, D. (2010) “Chemical and mineralogical
characterizations of LD converter steel
slags: A multi-analytical technique approach”
Materials Characterization, 61: pp.39 – 48.
-Xie, J., Chen, J., Shaopeng, W., Lin, J. and
Wei, W. (2013) “Performance characteristics
of asphalt mixture with basic oxygen furnace
slag”, Construction and Building Materials
38, pp.796–803.
Evaluation of Long Term Ageing of Asphalt Mixtures Containing EAF and BOF Steel Slags
265 International Journal of Transpotation Engineering,
Vol.2, No.3, Winter 2014
-Yongjie, X., Shaopeng, W., Haobo, H. and
Jin, Z. (2006)“Experimental investigation of
basic oxygen furnace slag used as aggregate
in asphalt mixture” Journal of Hazardous Materials,
B138: pp.261–268.
-You, Z. and Buttlar, W. (2004) ”Discrete
element modeling to predict the modulus of
asphalt concrete mixtures.” J. Mater. Civ.
Eng.16, Special Issue: Micromechanical
Characterization and Constitutive Modeling
of Asphalt Mixes, pp.140–146.