Simulating the Effects of Type and Spacing of Traffic Calming Measures on Urban Road Capacity
AbstractOne of the major reasons for accidents is speed. Top of Form
Inappropriate speed has been identified as the most important causal factor for serious traffic accidents. Traffic calming measures (TCMs) are engineering measures that are widely implemented to improve road safety by considerably reducing vehicle speed. TCMs have been widely used in urban areas to reduce vehicle flow rates and especially speed, and hence, to bring down the number and severity of traffic accidents. Despite numerous studies in literature, little attention has been paid to the effects of speed reduction using TCMs on network capacity regarding the main traffic operation parameters, including delay time, average speed of vehicles passing through the network, and vehicle fuel consumption. In response to this need, in this study drivers’ behavior in the presence of TCMs, based on different types and spacing of TCMs, was investigated using Aimsun software. For this purpose, the effects of a number of TCMs and their locations in the network were simulated in various scenarios and their capacity and operation performance parameters on urban roads were calculated accordingly. Consequently, according to the technical criteria, the scenarios in which the TCMs were implemented presented a better design quality. On the other hand, according to the results obtained in the different scenarios of this research, delay time and average fuel consumption of vehicles substantially increased while the average speed was reduced. It was found that TCMs have a direct effect on the network capacity and changing in the number and location of measures can change network capacity.
- Ariën, C., Jongen, E. M. M., Brijs, K., Brijs, T., Daniels, S. and Wets, G. (2013) “A simulator study on the impact of traffic calming measures in urban areas on driving behavior and workload”, Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 43–53.- Astarita, V., Giofré, V., Guido, G., and Vitale, A. (2012) “Calibration of a new microsimulation package for the evaluation of traffic safety performances”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 1019–1026.- Behnood, H. R., Haddadi, M. and Sirous, S. (2016). Lost output by road traffic injuries in Iran, an estimate based on disability-adjusted life years index. International Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 253-266.- Garcia, A., Moreno, A. N. A. T., Romero, M., and Perea, J. (2013) “Estimating the effect of traffic calming measures on ambulances”. Emergencias, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 285–288.- García, A., Torres, A. J., Romero, M. A. and Moreno, A. T. (2011) “Traffic microsimulation study to evaluate the effect of type and spacing of traffic calming devices on capacity”, Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 270–281.- Juhász, M. and Koren, C. (2016) “Getting an insight into the effects of traffic calming measures on road safety”, Transportation Research Procedia, Vol.14, No. 2, pp. 3811–3820.- Mao, J. and Koorey, G. (2010) “Investigating and modelling the effects of traffic calming devices”, IPENZ Transportation Group Conference, Christchurch, New Zealand.- Martínez, M. P., Garcia, A. and Moreno, A. T. (2011) “Traffic microsimulation study to evaluate freeway exit ramps capacity”. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 139–150.- Mehar, A., Chandra, S. and Velmurugan, S. (2013) “Passenger car units at different levels of service for capacity analysis of multilane interurban highways in India”, Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol.140, No. 1, pp. 81–88.- Pardon, N. and Average, C. (2013) “The effectiveness of traffic calming measures in reducing road carnage in masvingo urban”, International Journal of Scientific Knowledge , Vol.3, No. 2, pp. 1493–2305.- Sadeghi, J. and Hasheminezhad, A. (2013) “Sensitivity analysis of ballasted railway track design criteria”, 3rd International Conference on Recent Advances in Railway Engineering (ICRARE-2013), Iran University of science and Technology.- Sadeghi, J. Hasheminezhad, A. and Essmayil Kaboli, M. (2015) “Investigation of the influences of track superstructure parameters on ballasted railway track design”, Civil Engineering Infrastructures Journal, Vol. 48, No. -1, pp.157-174.- Stevenson, M., Yu, J., Hendrie, D., Li, L.P., Ivers, R., Zhou, Y., Su, S. and Norton, R. (2008) “Reducing the burden of road traffic injury: translating high-income country interventions to middle-income and low-income countries”. Injury Prevention, Vol. 14, No. 5, pp.284-289.- Ziolkowski, R. (2014) “Influence of traffic calming measures on drivers’ behaviour. In Environmental Engineering”, Proceedings of the International Conference on Environmental Engineering. ICEE (Vol. 9, p. 1). Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Department of Construction Economics and Property.