Comparing Methods of Ramp Metering for On-Ramps to Improve the Operational Conditions at Peak Hours

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2 PhD Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran


This paper aims to evaluate and compare the effects of different methods of ramp metering on the operational conditions of traffic flow at three levels: the network level (including the freeway and its connected ramps), the entrance ramp, and the upstream segment of the entrance. To achieve this aim, one of the most important urban freeways in the metropolis of Isfahan was selected. The traffic volume passing through this freeway and its connected ramps were determined during peak hours (7 to 9 am), and the south band flows were simulated using microscopic analysis in AIMSUN software. After calibration and validation of the model, a specific on-ramp (the entrance ramp of Samadiyeh) was reviewed as the selected ramp, by using the fixed-time plan and ALINEA algorithm at demand levels of 100%, 110% and 80%. The results indicate that for normal demand level (100% demand), ramp metering does not have a significant effect on traffic flow. Further, ramp metering significantly improved upstream traffic flow in the freeway at high demand levels (110% demand), indicating its usefulness at high demand levels. At this demand level, ramp metering leads to traffic flow deviation. At low demand (80% demand), ramp metering increased the delay time of both the freeway and the ramp, indicating the ineffectiveness of ramp metering at low demands.


- AASHTO (2006) "A policy on geometric design of highways and streets", 5th Edition, Washington D.C: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
- Abdel-Aty, M., Dhindsa, A. and Gayah, V. (2007) "Considering various ALINEA ramp metering strategies for crash risk mitigation on freeways under congested regime", Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol. 15, pp. 113-134.
- Arnold, E.D. (1998) "Ramp metering: a review of the literature", Technical Assistant Report, Virginia Department of Transportation, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.
- Chaudhary, Nadeem A., Tain, Z., Messer, Carroll J. and Chu, C. (2004) "Ramp metering algorithms and approaches for Texas", Technical Report, Texas Transportation Institute, Texas A&M University system college Station, Austin, Texas, USA.
- Chu, L., Liu, H.X., Recker, W. and Zhang, H. M. (2004) "Performance evaluation of adaptive ramp metering algorithms using microscopic traffic simulation model", Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 130, No.3,  pp. 330-338.
-Dongyan, S., Xiao-Yun, L., Roberto, H. and Zhongren, W. (2014) "Coordinated ramp metering and intersection signal control", International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 179–192.
- Haj-Salem, H., Farhi, N. and Lebacque, J. P. (2014) "Combining ramp metering and hard shoulder strategies: Field evaluation results on the ILE the France Motorway Network", Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 3, pp. 1002-1010
-Hasan, M., Jha, M. and Ben-Akiva, M. (2002) "Evaluation of ramp control algorithms using microscopic traffic simulation", Transportation Research Part C: Emerging   Technologies, Vol. 10, pp. 229-256.
-Hoel, L. A., Garber, N. J. and Sadek, Adel W. (2011) "Transportation infrastructure engineering: a multi-modal integration SI Edition", Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA.
-Ismail, M. A. and Celikoglu, H. B. (2017) " Local ramp metering strategy alinea: microscopic simulation based evaluation study on Istanbul freeways", Transportation Research Procedia, Vol 22, pp. 598–606.
-Jacobson, L., Stribiak, J., Nelson, L. and Sallaman, D. (2006) "Ramp management and control handbook", Washington D.C: Office of Transportation Management Federal Highway Administration.
-Jain, A. (2004) "Ramp metering", Term Paper Report, Transportation Systems Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, India.
- Khaled, S., Muhammad Asif, K.and Hamilaa, R., (2016) "Literature review of advancements in adaptive ramp metering", Procedia Computer Science Vol.83, pp.203 – 211.
-Li, D., Ranjitkar, P. and Ceder, A. (2014b) “Integrated approach combining ramp metering and variable speed limits to improve motorway performance”,  Paper Presented at the Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting, No. 14-3781.
-Neudorff, L. G., Randall, J. E., Reiss, R. and Gordon, R. (2003) "Freeway management and operations handbook", Washington        D.C: Office of Transportation Management Federal Highway Administration.
-Papageorgiou, M. (1991) "Concise  encyclopedia of traffic & transportation systems", First Edition, UK: Pergamon Press plc.
- Pasquale, Sacone, S., Siri, S. and De Schutter, B. (2016) "A multi-class ramp metering and routing control scheme to reduce congestion and traffic emissions in freeway networks", IFAC-PapersOnLine, Vol. 49, No.3,  pp. 329–334.
-Roess, R. P., Prassas, E. S. and Mcshane, W. R. (2004) "Traffic engineering", Third Edition, USA: Pearson Prentice Hall.
-Smarragdis, E., Papageorgiou, M. and Kosmatopoulos, E. (2004) "A flow-maximizing adaptive local ramp metering strategy", Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Vol. 38, pp. 251-270.
-Winyoopadit, S. (2007) "Development and comparative evaluation of ramp metering algorithms using microscopic         traffic   simulation", Journal of Transportation Systems  Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 7, pp. 51-62.
-Wu, J., McDonald, M. and Chatterjee, K. (2007) "A detailed evaluation of ramp metering impacts on driver behavior", Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol.10, pp.61-75.
-Yuheng, K., Yibing W., Papageorgiou and Ioannis Papamichail, M. (2016) "Local ramp metering with distant downstream bottlenecks: A comparative study", Transportation Research Part C 62, 149–170.