The Effects of Concrete Pavement Mix Design Parameters on Durability under Freeze and Thaw Condition

Document Type : Research Paper


Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


This paper is based on an experimental research that examined the effects of concrete`s major parameters on durability of concrete pavements and curbs under freezing and thawing cycles. These parameters include concrete mix design parameters such as water-cement ratio, fine aggregate percentage and using air entraining admixture and simulating real freeze-thaw cycles that infrastructures undergo by considering deicing salt and water flow. Four types of concrete samples were prepared and submerged in four different freeze-thaw conditions. Their weight and compressive strength were measured and the results were analyzed. Based on the results, regression analysis was used and two linear models were developed to predict the weight loss and compressive strength loss of concrete under freeze-thaw cycles. The results indicated that fine aggregate percentage is a key factor in durability of concrete, and concrete samples with 6% air underwent less deterioration in comparison to concrete with lower water-cement ratio. In addition, water flow increases the deterioration of concrete under freeze-thaw cycles specially when deicing salt is present.


-Alberta Municipal Affairs, Government of Alberta "Building envelope survey. In partnership with the City of Calgary" Accessed online on September 2014 at, 2008.
-American Concrete Institute (ACI) "Guide for selecting proportions for no-slump concrete, ACI 211.3R, ACI, Detroit, USA, 2002.
-American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), "Standard Test Method for Resistance of Concrete to Rapid Freezing and Thawing," ASTM C666, 2008.
-Basheer, L. and Cleland, D. J. (2006) "Freeze-thaw resistance of concrete treated with pore liners," Journal of Construction and Building Materials. Volume 20, Issue 10, 990–998.
-Cho, T. (2007) "Prediction of cyclic freeze–thaw damage in concrete structures based on response surface method," Journal of Construction and Building Materials. Volume 21, Issue 12, 2031–2040.
-Du, L. and Folliard, K. (2005) "Mechanisms of air entrainment in concrete," Journal of Cement and Concrete Research.Volume35, Issue 8, 1463– 1471, 2005.
-European Union, Brite EuRam III (2000) "Chemical stability, wear resistance and freeze-thaw resistance of lightweight aggregate concrete," Document BE96-3942/R25. Document BE96-3942/R25, Project funded by the European Union under the Industrial and Materials Technologies Program (Brite-EuRam III) Contract BRPR-CT97-0381, Project BE96-3942.
-Harnick, A. B. Meier, V. and Rosli, A. (1980) "Combined influence of freezing and deicing salt on concrete: physical aspects," In: Sereda PJ, Litvan GG, editors. Durability of building materials and components. ASTM STP 691. p. 474–84.
-Hale, M., Freyne, S. and Russell, B. (2009) "Examining the frost resistance of high performance concrete," Journal of Construction and Building Materials. Volume 23, Issue 2, 878–888.
-Harrison, T. and Dewar, J. D. (2001) "Freeze-thaw resisting concrete, its achievement in the UK," London.
-Kaufmann, P. (2004) "Experimental identification of ice formation in small concrete pores," Journal of Cement and Concrete Research. Volume 34, Issue 8, 1421–1427.
-Litvan, G. G. (1976) "Frost action in cement in the presence of deicers," Journal of Cement and Concrete Research. Volume 6, Issue 3, 351–356.
-Prasad, A. M. (2003) "Behavior of concrete in freeze-thaw environment of sea water", IE(I) Journal CV.
-Penttala, V. (2006) "Surface and internal deterioration of concrete due to saline and non-saline freeze-thaw loads", Journal of Cement and Concrete Research. Volume 36, Issue 5, 921 – 928.
-Salt Institute (2014) "Deicing salt and corrosion",
-Shi, X. and Fay, L. (2010) "Freeze–thaw damage and chemical change of a Portland cement concrete in the presence of diluted deicers," Journal of Materials and Structures, Volume 43, Issue 7, pp.933-946.
-Setzer, M. J. (1976) "Action of frost and deicing chemicals". Basic phenomena and testing. In: Marchand J, Pigeon M, Zetzer M, editors. Freeze–thaw durability of concrete. London: E and FN Spon. p. 3–21.
-Shang, H. S., and Song, Y. P. (2006) "Experimental study of strength and deformation of plain concrete under biaxial compression after freezing and thawing cycles," Journal of Cement and Concrete Research. Volume 36, Issue 10, pp.1857–1864.
-Wang, K., Nelsen, D. and Nixon, W. (2006) "Damaging effects of deicing chemicals on concrete materials," Journal of Cement and Concrete Composites. Volume 28, Issue 2, pp.173–188.