Lost Output by Road Traffic Injuries in Iran, an Estimate Based on Disability-Adjusted Life Years Index

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Ghazvin, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Social Medicine, Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Department, Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Tehran, Iran

3 MSc, Biostatistics, World Health Organization Representative Office, Tehran, Iran


The main objective of this study is to estimate a part of road traffic injury costs including costs due to fatality and disability, which are related to lost social products. Lost output consists of costs, which are related to losses of national product or lost-income in death, hospitalization or physical disabilities. In recent years, the Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) has been used as an appropriate criterion to measure mortality and disability burden from different diseases. The DALYs index for a definite disease is defined as total years of life lost due to a premature death (YLL) and the years lost due to disability (YLD) for the disease. The distribution of fatalities and disabilities in age intervals takes advantage of official references including Legal Medicine Organization reports on road fatalities and Harvard University surveys in road-crash-related disability dispersion in Iran. According to this distribution, life expectancy can be determined for the used age distribution in this study. This study indicates that the highest amount of the life years lost due to road fatalities belongs to the age range of 11-29 years old in Iran for whom, an average value of lost useful life is estimated more than 12 years. The total output value or lost product due to death or disabilities by traffic injuries is estimated approximately 1.4 Billion USD in 2011. As a social cumulative criterion, it stands for the second cost contributing factor after medical costs. The study has shown that the lost output is identified as the main part of costs imposed on each individual killed by a road traffic injury.


- Ahadi, M. R. and Razi-Ardakani, H. (2015) “Estimating the cost of road traffic accidents in Iran using Human Capital Method”, International Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol.2, No.3, pp. 163-278.
- Ainy, E., Soori, H, Ganjali, M., Le, H. and Baghfalaki, T. (2014) “Estimating cost of road traffic injuries in iran using willingness to pay (WTP) method”, PLoS One; 9(12):e112721.
- Ainy, E, Soori, H., Ganjali, M. and Baghfalaki T. (2015) “Eliciting road traffic injuries cost among Iranian drivers’ public vehicles using willingness to pay method”, International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science; 5(2), p.,108.
- Anh, T.T. and Dao, N. X (2005) “The cost of road traffic accident in Vietnam”, Proceedings of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 5, pp. 1923 – 1933.
- Asian Development Bank (2003) “Road safety guidelines for the Asian and Pacific Region, guidelines for decision makers on road safety policy”, Asian Development Bank, Manila, Philippines.
- Australian Transport Safety Bureau (2004) “Road safety in Australia; A publication commemorating World Health Day, 2004”, Commonwealth of Australia 2004, Australian Government.
- Ayati, E. (2005) “Estimation of rural road crash costs in Iran”, Transportation Research Institute, Ministry of Road and Transportation, Iran.
- Ayati, E. (2008) “Rural and urban road crash costs in Iran”, Transportation Research Institute, Ministry of Road and Transportation, Iran.
- Beer, E. and Niekerk, E. (2004) “The estimation of unit costs of road traffic accidents in South Africa”. National Department of Transport, Project No. 9456/TML01.
- Bhalla, K., Naghavi, M., Shahraz, S., Bartels, D. and Murray, C. J. (2008) “Road traffic injuries in Iran”, Harvard University Initiative for Global Health Road Traffic Injury Metrics Group, World Bank Global Road Safety Facility.
- Bureau of Transport Economics (2000) “Road crash costs in Australia, Report 102”, Commonwealth of Australia 2000.
- De Leon, M. R. M., Cal, P. C. and Sigua, R. G. (2005) “Estimation of socio-economic cost of road accidents in Metro Manila”, Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Vol. 6, pp. 3183 – 3198.
- Fox-Rushby, J. (2012) “Chronic disease”, Copenhagen Consensus 2012 Perspective Paper.
- Ismail, M. A. and Abdelmageed, S.M.M. (2010) “Cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt”, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 42, pp. 1308- 1314.
- Iran. Management and Planning Organization (2007) “Manual for preparing briefing reports”, Code 3122, Islamic Republic of Iran.
- Kudebong, M., Wurapa, F., Nonvignon, J., Norman, I., Awoonor-williams, J.K. and Aikins, M. (2011) “Economic burden of motorcycle accidents in Northern Ghana”, Ghana Medical Journal, Vol. 45, No. 4, pp. 135-142.
- Mathers, C., vos, T. and Stevenson, C. (1999) “The burden of disease and injury in Australia”, AIHW Cat. No. PHE 17, AIHW, Canberra.
- Mathers, C. D., Vos, T., Lopez, A.D., Salomon, J. and Ezzati, M. (2001) “National burden of disease studies: a practical guide; Edition 2.0”. Global Program on Evidence for Health Policy Geneva: World Health Organization.
- Mathers, C., Fat, D. M. and Boerma, J.T. (2008) “The global burden of disease: 2004 Update”, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.