Illuminating Perceptions Affecting Mode Choice: A Combination of Qualitative Perspective and ICLV Modeling

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

2 Professor, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran


Understanding travel behavior is one of the most critical challenges in transportation planning. Planners can gain profound insights into travel behavior by exploring people’s perceptions and attitudes. Qualitative research as an independent approach or in a combination of a quantitative research can provide a deep understanding of people’s perceptions in transportation. This study used both qualitative and quantitative techniques to inspect citizens’ perceptions towards travel behavior. The interview results of the qualitative approach indicated that environmental concerns were mainly rooted in spiritual ethics. In addition, the respondents identified comfort, time, safety, and environmental concerns as the critical determinants in travel mode choice. The characteristics of individuals and transportation alternatives as well as environmental concerns were considered to affect mode choice in the quantitative study. The results, extracted from an Integrated Choice and Latent Variable (ICLV) model, showed that environmental concerns influenced people to choose public transportation. Furthermore, the findings indicated that young and middle-aged people preferred to use public transportation. Still, the preference was about quadruple for the middle-aged group.


- Aarhaug, Jørgen, and Beate Elvebakk (2015) "The impact of Universally accessible public transport–a before and after study."  Transport Policy, Vol. 44 pp. 143-150. doi:
- Atasoy, Bilge, Aurélie Glerum, and Michel Bierlaire (2013) "Attitudes towards mode choice in Switzerland."  disP-The Planning Review, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 101-117. doi:
- Beirão, Gabriela, and JA Sarsfield Cabral (2007) "Understanding attitudes towards public transport and private car: A qualitative study."  Transport policy, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 478-489. doi:
- Ben-Akiva, Moshe, Joan Walker, Adriana T Bernardino, Dinesh A Gopinath, Taka Morikawa, and Amalia Polydoropoulou (1998) "Integration of choice and latent variable models." Paper read at 8th International Conference on Travel Behaviour, Austin, Texas.
- Berelson, Bernard (1952) Content analysis in communication research.
- Bierlaire, Michel (2020) " A short introduction to PandasBiogeme. Technical report TRANSP-OR 200605. Transport and Mobility Laboratory, ENAC, EPFL.".
- Bolduc, Denis, and Ricardo Alvarez-Daziano (2010) "On estimation of hybrid choice models." In Choice Modelling: The State-of-the-art and The State-of-practice. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
- Boonjubun, Chaitawat (2017) "Conflicts over streets: The eviction of Bangkok street vendors."  Cities, Vol. 70, pp. 22-31. doi:
- Bouscasse, Hélène, Iragael Joly, and Patrick Bonnel (2018) "How does environmental concern influence mode choice habits? A mediation analysis."  Transportation research part D: transport and environment, Vol.59, pp. 205-222. doi:
- Cassell, Catherine, and Gillian Symon (2004) Essential guide to qualitative methods in organizational research: Sage.
- Chen, Jian, Qi Chen, and He-ping Li (2020) "Psychological Influences on Bus Travel Mode Choice: A Comparative Analysis between Two Chinese Cities."  Journal of Advanced Transportation 2020. doi:
- Czepkiewicz, Michał, Jukka Heinonen, Petter Næss, and Harpa Stefansdóttir (2020) "Who travels more, and why? A mixed-method study of urban dwellers’ leisure travel."  Travel behaviour and society, Vol. 19, pp. 67-81. doi:
- Fan, Aihua, and Xumei Chen (2020) "Exploring the Relationship between Transport Interventions, Mode Choice, and Travel Perception: An Empirical Study in Beijing, China."  International journal of environmental research and public health, Vol. 17, No. 12, pp. 42-58. doi:
- Gardner, Benjamin, and Charles Abraham (2007) "What drives car use? A grounded theory analysis of commuters’ reasons for driving."  Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 187-200. doi:
- Gärling, Tommy, and Geertje Schuitema (2007) "Travel demand management targeting reduced private car use: effectiveness, public acceptability and political feasibility."  Journal of Social Issues,Vol. 63, No. 1, pp. 139-153. doi:
- Grosvenor, Tim (2000) Qualitative research in the transport sector. Resource paper for the workshop on qualitative/quantitative methods. Proceedings of an International Conference on Transport Survey Quality and Innovation. Grainau, Germany, Transportation Research E-Circular, Number E-C008, August 2000.
- Heinen, Eva, Kees Maat, and Bert Van Wee (2011) "The role of attitudes toward characteristics of bicycle commuting on the choice to cycle to work over various distances."  Transportation research part D: transport and environment, Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 102-109. doi:
- Hoffmann, Christin, Charles Abraham, Mathew P White, and Stephen M Skippon (2020) "Ambivalent about travel mode choice? A qualitative investigation of car user and non-car user attitudes."  Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 141:323-338. doi:
- Hsieh, Hsiu-Fang, and Sarah E Shannon (2005) "Three approaches to qualitative content analysis."  Qualitative health research,Vol. 15, No. 9, pp. 1277-1288. doi:
- Kim, Junghwa, Satoshi Fujii, and Backjin Lee (2013) "Strategies to promote sustainable mobility management incorporating heterogeneity."  International journal of sustainable transportation, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 107-124. doi:
- Likert, Rensis (1932) "A technique for the measurement of attitudes."  Archives of psychology.
- Luchs, Michael G, and Todd A Mooradian (2012) "Sex, personality, and sustainable consumer behaviour: Elucidating the gender effect."  Journal of Consumer Policy, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 127-144. doi:
- Madanipour, Ali (1999) "City profile: Tehran."  Cities, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 57-65. doi:
- Maxwell, Joseph A (1996) "Qualitative Research Design. An Interactive Approach. Sage Publications."  Thousand Oaks, CA.
- Miralles-Guasch, Carme, Montserrat Martínez Melo, and Oriol Marquet Sarda (2014) "On user perception of private transport in Barcelona Metropolitan area: an experience in an academic suburban space."  Journal of Transport Geography, Vol. 36, pp. 24-31. doi:
- Onodugo, Vincent Aghaegbunam, Nkeiru Hope Ezeadichie, Chioma Agatha Onwuneme, and Adanma Ebere Anosike (2016) "The dilemma of managing the challenges of street vending in public spaces: The case of Enugu City, Nigeria."  Cities, Vol. 59, pp. 95-101. doi:
- Ramos, Sara, Paula Vicente, Ana M Passos, Patrícia Costa, and Elizabeth Reis (2019) "Perceptions of the public transport service as a barrier to the adoption of public transport: A qualitative study."  Social Sciences, Vol. 8, No. 5, pp. 150. doi:
- Ritchie, Jane, Jane Lewis, and Gillian Elam (2003) Designing and selecting samples: London: Sage.
- Ritchie, Jane, Jane Lewis, Carol McNaughton Nicholls, and Rachel Ormston (2013) Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers: sage.
- Schwanen, Tim, and Patricia L Mokhtarian (2005) "What affects commute mode choice: neighborhood physical structure or preferences toward neighborhoods?"  Journal of transport geography, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 83-99. doi: 
- Sen, Saptarshi, Tarun Chowdhury, Ayan Mitra, and Sudip Kumar Roy (2019) "Assessing Travel Time Reliability of Public Transport in Kolkata: A Case Study."  Advances in Transportation Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 21-34. doi:
- Steg, Linda (2005) "Car use: lust and must. Instrumental, symbolic and affective motives for car use."  Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Vol. 39, No. 2-3, pp. 147-162. doi:
- Stokes, David, and Richard Bergin (2006) "Methodology or “methodolatry”? An evaluation of focus groups and depth interviews."  Qualitative market research: An international Journal. doi:
- Vredin Johansson, Maria, Tobias Heldt, and Per Johansson (2005) Latent variables in a travel mode choice model: Attitudinal and behavioural indicator variables: Department of Economics, Uppsala University.
- Walker, Joan, and Moshe Ben-Akiva (2002) "Generalized random utility model."  Mathematical social sciences, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 303-343. doi:
- Wall, Rob, Patrick Devine-Wright, and Greig A Mill (2008) "Interactions between perceived behavioral control and personal-normative motives: Qualitative and quantitative evidence from a study of commuting-mode choice."  Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 63-86. doi: