Effect of Fine Recycled Asphalt Aggregates and Cement Additives on the Sandy Subgrade Performance

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associate Prof., Road and Transportation Eng., Civil Engineering Department, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran

2 Assistant Prof., Department of Civil Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar, India

3 Ph.D. Student., Road and Transportation Eng., Civil Engineering Department, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


IIn different parts of the world, road pavements are on dune sandy subgrade, where road construction is not possible without amendments. In this regard, various methods, such as mixing soil with other materials like lime, cement, bitumen, geotextiles, chemical compounds, etc to improve the soil grading, have been considered. In this research, the simultaneous effect of incorporating fine reclaimed asphalt pavement aggregates (FRAPA) for improving grading and cement application as the binder of the dune sand was investigated to enhance subgrade strength properties. The soil was mixed and replaced by three different doses of crushed recycled asphalt FRAPA (5, 15, and 25 percent). Similarly, the soil was replaced by 2.5, 5, and 7.5 percent of cement; in each mixing step, samples were prepared using static compaction method. Specimens were tested in uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) after saturation at the temperature of 25°C for 3 and 7 days curing period. Some of the results of this study showed that the increase of cement itself does not have much effect on increasing the strength properties of the soil but the use of FRAPA can significantly improve its properties. The maximum compressive stress strength and soil elastic modulus were obtained in the ratio of mixing 7.5% cement and 15% FRAPA. In the next step, the experimental results were selected as inputs in the numerical models and from the results of the finite element analysis the optimal thickness for subgrade improvement was chosen; where the thickness of 20 cm was obtained accordingly.


- ASTM C150 , C150M-19,(2019), "standard specification for portland cement", ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, pp. 10.
- Ayan, V., Khavandi, A., Omer, J. R. and Limbachiya, M. C. (2016) "Toughness performance of recycled aggregates for use in road pavement", International Journal of Transportation Engineering (IJTE), Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 171-179.
- Banzibaganye, G., Twagirimana, E. and Kumaran, G. S. (2018) " Strength enhancement of silty sand soil subgrade of highway pavement using lime and fines from demolished concrete wastes" , International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa. Trans Tech Publications, Vol. 36, pp. 74-84.
- Bleakley, A. M., Cosentino, P. J., Al-Obaydi, R., and Balan, F. B. (2016) "Reclaimed asphalt pavement-sand blends stabilized with asphalt emulsion and portland cement", Transportation Research Board, No. 16, pp. 13-68.
- Bozbey, I., Kelesoglu, M., Demir, B., Komut, M., Comez, S., Ozturk, T., Mert, A., (2018) "Effects of soil pulverization level on resilient modulus and freeze and thaw resistance of a lime stabilized clay", Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol.151, pp. 323-334.
- Kalpakci, V., Faeq, R., and Canakci, H. (2018) "compaction and CBR properties of RAP/sand blends in Iraq" , Arabian Journal of Geosciences, vol.11, No.21 , pp. 663.
- Kim, Y., and Lee, K. (2018) "Evaluation of physical properties for hot-in place recycling mixtures applied for maintenance project in national highway", Inte jour.vol.18, pp.142-142.
- Khabiri, M. M. (2010) "The effect of stabilized subbase containing waste construction materials on reduction of pavement rutting depth". Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol.15, pp.1211-19.
- Kumar R., Appa Roa G., Ryntathiang T.L. (2018), "Green road approach in Indian road construction for sustainable development. ", Urban Ecology, Water Quality and Climate Change. Water Science and Technology Library, vol. 84. Springe, pp. 107- 119.
- Mousa, R., and Mousod, M. (2017) "Viability assessment of using a blend of reclaimed asphalt pavement and sand in road construction: case study in Egypt",Report, No. 17-06, pp.447.
- Mousa, R. M., (2019) "cost–benefit analysis of rap–sand blend applications in road construction". Transportation Research Record, Doi: 03611981188234,pp.34-95.
- Nameghi, I., and Aghayan, I. Behzadian, R., Mosaberpanah,. M. (2019) “Investigating the Effect of Using Cross-Linked
Polyethylene Waste as Fine Aggregate on Mechanical Properties of Hot Mix Asphalt". International Journal of Transportation Engineering (IJTE), Vol.7,No.3, pp.233-247.
- Nazarinasab, A., Ghasemi,. M., Marandi, S. (2017) "Performance Improvement of Porous Asphalt Mixtures using Crumb Rubber and Steel Slag Powder" International Journal of Transportation Engineering (IJTE), Vol.6,No.2, pp.99-110.
- Rasul, J. M., Ghataora, G. S., and Burrow, M. P. (2018) "The effect of wetting and drying on the performance of stabilized subgrade soils". Transportation Geotechnics, No.14, pp.1-7.
- Samb, F., Berthaud, Y., Ba, M., Fall, M., andBenboudjema, F. (2018) "Nonlinear Mechanical Behavior Analysis of Flexible Lateritic Pavements of Senegal (West Africa) by FEM for M.-E". Pavement Design. Geotechnical and Geological Engineering,vol. 36.No.5), pp.2939-2956.
- Seferoğlu, A. G., Seferoğlu, M. T., and Akpinar, M. V. (2018) "Investigating the mechanical behavior of reclaimed asphalt pavement (rap) bases in large scale test box". Teknik Dergi, vol.30, No.6), pp. 1.-10.
- Shahiri, J., and Ghasemi, M. (2017) "Utilization of soil stabilization with cement and copper slag as subgrade materials in road embankment construction". International Journal of Transportation Engineering (IJTE), Vol.5,No.1, pp.45-58.
- Taha, R., Ali, G., Basma, A., and Al-Turk, O. (1999) "Evaluation of reclaimed asphalt pavement aggregate in road bases and subbases". Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No.1652 , pp. 264-269.
- Xuan, D.X., Molenaar, A.A.A., Houben L.J.M., (2015), “Evaluation of cement treatment of reclaimed construction and demolition waste as road bases”, J. of Cleaner Production, No.100, pp. 77-83.